coronavirus-title image

Review of the Medical Literature - View Journals - Contact

This report reviews the current state of scientific literature investigating newly identified toxic effects to people and the immune system, after the use of common household disinfectants (i.e. bleach). Although the CDC stated on May 19th, that COVID-19 infection from surface to hand contact is unlikely, high level use of chemical disinfectants continues.

As shown in the studies below, the use of household chlorine bleach (and other disifectants) has been shown to increase rates of serious health problems (in both children and adults). All medical studies used in this toxicology assessment were acquired from the NIH National Library of Medicine database.

This includes the first study below (from the Department of Public Health in Belgium), which found increases (not decreases) in rates of influenza, tonsillitis and ear infections among children living in homes using common household bleach.

Unfortunately, sharing of our website URL was blocked by Facebook on May 28, 2020. We have made contact with FB asking why a website that follows all FB guidelines is not being allowed to share this important and documented information. If you wish to share this information on FB, you will have to copy and paste our main graphic onto your page and instruct visitors to write the URL directly in their browser.

The surprising finding (linking chlorine bleach with increased child infections) is followed by several studies reporting the unexpected formation of high air levels of chloroform, carbon-tetrachloride and other toxic chemicals. Chloroform is a well documented highly toxic compound and is unintentionally created when household bleach comes in contact with organic matter on floors, countertops and other surfaces. Contact with water was also discussed by scientists as being related to the rapid increase in toxic chemical formation after bleach applications. It is important to clarify that these newly formed toxic compounds occurred after using only bleach, and without bleach being mixed with other disinfectant products. Chloroform reached unacceptably high air levels within minutes after beginning bleach use. In additional studies listed, chloroform was found to suppress output of the essential anti-viral immune defense known as interferon (which improves immune function and blocks virus entry into nearby body cells). These topics are discussed as well. Other studies of non-bleach disinfectants are reviewed which were found increase rates neurological birth defects, COPD and asthma.

All medical studies reviewed below were published in peer reviewed journals currently indexed in the National Library of Medicine database. Each review provides details on the universities and research facilities involved - medical journal name - volume - and link to the original journal article in the National Library of Medicine. This enables immediate confirmation on the accuracy of information, thereby providing credibility needed for initiating discussions on these important topics.

Common Bleach Increases (not decreases) Child Infection Rates - Toxic Chemical ByProducts Suspected

This study found common household bleach increased child infections rather than decreased. Other studies support these findings by showing bleach forms highly toxic chloroform and other chemicals, which in turn can weaken the immune system.
Household bleach is typically made from a mixture of water and the chemical sodium hypochlorite. The product is promoted as a "safe" way to disinfectant homes, schools, hospitals and nursing homes. While it is accurate that bleach can reduce surface levels of bacteria and viruses after treatment, scientists are now finding the main chemical in bleach undergoes reactions that form far more toxic chemicals that have not been previously addressed. These chemicals include carbon-tetrachloride and chloroform.

In this study out of Barcelona, Spain, researchers studied homes of over 2000 children ages 6-12 in Spain and Finland. Detailed questionnaires were given to the families inquiring about the use of bleach and frequency of infections including influenza, sinusitis, tonsillitis, ear infections, bronchitis and pneumonia. Results showed that using bleach had an opposite effect of what would be expected and actually increased the rate of influenza by 20% - recurring tonsillitis by 35% - and risk of any infection by 18%. The authors concluded by stating:

"Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. The high frequency of use of disinfecting irritant cleaning products may be of public health concern, also when exposure occurs during childhood."

Centre for Environment and Health
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven
Belgium Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)
Barcelona, Spain CIBER EpidemiologĂ­a y Salud PĂșblica (CIBERESP)
Barcelona, Spain University Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain


Occupational & Environ. Medicine
Vol.73(3):215, 2016
View Journal HERE

Chlorine Cleaning Products (and Bleach) Create High Levels of Chloroform

15 common cleaning products containing bleach or other chlorine compounds were found to emit high levels of toxic chloroform gas. Adds support to the previous study finding higher rates of influenza and infections among children living in homes using bleach products.

Researchers tested 15 cleaning products (including household bleach) for levels of toxic chemicals. Chloroform was detected in all 15 products tested and carbon-tetrachloride in 13 products. Both chemicals have been banned and considered highly toxic. After using the products, the estimated exposure for breathing chloroform gas was .041 mg/kg per day and .0240 for carbon-tetrachloride. The scientists concluded by stating:

"According to the calculated result, the total estimated human exposure of chloroform were determined to exceed the tolerable concentration of inhalation exposure presented by the World Health Organization."

This study adds further support to the hypothesis that chemical disinfectants, rather than helping, could be a significant driving factor in worsening the current state of COVID-19 infections via a weakening of the human immune system. Because of the widespread increase in residential chemical disinfectant use since the COVID-19 outbreak, it is imperative to investigate the immuno-toxicology of chemical disinfectants with special emphasis on children, the elderly and those with weakened chemical detoxification systems (i.e. cytochrome P-450). Non-toxic disinfectants being shown to have similar effectiveness to chemical disinfectants should also be encouraged - including basic detergent, low ph white vinegar and thymol.


Vol. 174: 157-164, 2017
View Journal HERE

Toxic Gas Emitted from Household Bleach

This study tested 8 chlorine bleach products and found high air concentrations of toxic chemical carbon-tetrachloride.

Sodium hypochlorite is the main disinfectant chemical found in household bleach. This study demonstrated that a number of new and highly toxic chemicals are found in indoor air immediately following the use of bleach to disinfect.

Researchers tested 8 different chlorine bleach products for their ability to emit or create potentially toxic chemicals. Indoor air samples were taken before, during and 30 minutes after bathroom, kitchen, and floor cleaning applications. Of great concern, the highly toxic chemicals chloroform and carbon-tetrachloride significantly increased during the use of bleach containing products.
Researchers went on to state:

"One of the most surprising results was the presence of carbon tetrachloride (a probable human carcinogen and powerful greenhouse gas that was banned for household use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in very high concentrations (up to 101 mg/m(-3). By mixing surfactants or soap with NaOCl (bleach), it was shown that the formation of carbon tetrachloride and several other halogenated VOCs (15 in total), is possible.


Environ. Science Technology
Vol. 42(5): 1445-51, 2008
View Journal HERE

Interferon Decreased by Bleach Chemical

Interferon in our lungs, throat and nasal area is essential in stopping viral infections before they start. Unfortunately, common household bleach disrupts the ability of interferon to do this job properly.
Since it is now well established that interferon production by cells lining the inside of our nose, throat and lungs is essential for preventing all viral infections (including COVID-19), the next question is if there are environmental circumstances that can reduce interferon output?

In this next study from the Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology at University of Louisiana School of Medicine, researchers pretreated mouse embryo cell cultures with a number of different chemicals. Results showed pretreatment with the chemical chloroform severely inhibited the production of alpha/beta interferon by cells.

Since chloroform gas was shown to reach exceptionally high air levels after use of bleach products (as demonstrated in a previous journal review), this study provides a plausible explanation for the higher rates of influenza (and other infections) found in 6-12 year old children living in homes that use bleach products.


Environmental Research
Vol. 31(2):355-361
View Journal HERE

Bleach Damages DNA in Immune System Cells

Our lymphocyte white blood cells rely on their DNA to tell them what to do and how to stop a virus. In this study, it was found that common bleach damaged the DNA in these white blood cells.
Lymphocytes are the type of white blood cell found in abnormally low numbers in people who develop severe CoronaVirus and have been found low in those who also do not survive Influenza. In this study, researchers wanted to determine how different levels of the chemical sodium hypochlorite (the main chemical in common bleach and some water treatments) affected the chromosomes of lymphocytes. Blood samples were collected from healthy non-smoking adults and added to a culture that encourages the survival and growth of lymphocytes. Blood cultures were exposed to different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite at levels measured in micrograms per milliliter. Levels included - 0.030 - 0.065 - 0.100 - 0.25 - 0.50 - 1 - 2 and 4. In summary, the researchers stated (page 117):

A significant increase in chromosomal aberration (abnormality) frequency was observed in all treatments of NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite).... at 24 and 48 hours compared with the negative control... In conclusion, our data provide evidence that NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) increases the chromosomal aberration rate, micronuclei formation (small nucleus) and cytotoxicity (cell damage) in human lymphocyte cells in vitro at concentrations approximate 33 times lower than that found in drinking water.

Department of Biology, University of Kafkas, Kars, Turkey

Vol. 599:113-119, 2009
View Journal HERE

Birth Defects Higher from Common Disinfectant

The second most common disinfectant after bleach is called Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. These have also been found to cause severe health consequences including neural tube birth defects. The "neural tube" is the very first stage of brain growth in humans and other mammals.
Another group of disinfectants is called Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. These chemicals are used in common commercial and residential disinfectants and do not contain bleach. Researchers at the Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine in Virginia became interested in these chemicals after being informed of two separate incidents at two laboratories in which there was an observed decrease in animal health and an increase in neural tube defects after switching to a particular disinfectant. The disinfectants in question contained a combination of two chemicals including alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). To determine if the disinfectants were causing a problem, both mice and rats were divided into groups with some being fed the chemicals, other receiving injections and others being exposed to the chemicals normally in the ambient air. The main findings showed exposure from the ambient air (breathing in fumes) caused more neural tube defects than the other exposure conditions. Also of concern, the rate of neural tube birth defects continued for 2 generations, (thereby suggesting potential for genetic damage). In conclusion the researchers stated,

These results demonstrate that ADBAC+DDAC in combination are teratogenic to rodents. Given the increased use of these disinfectants, further evaluation of their safety in humans and their contribution to health and disease is essential.

Although this study is not related specifically to the CoronaVirus (or other viral infections), it is of concern as this type of disinfectant is being used with much greater frequency during the COVID-19 situation.


Birth Defect Research
Vol. 109(14):1166, 2017
View Journal HERE

Detergent as Effective as Disinfectants

Studies comparing chemical disinfectants to detergents found using basic detergent was just as effective as disinfectants for reducing infections in hospital patients.

As seen in the previous reports, common chemical disinfectants are suspected of weakening the immune system, thereby resulting in higher infection rates for influenza and other pathogens. In this report out of Freiburg University Hospital in Germany, researchers reviewed 4 scientific studies investigating the effectiveness of chemical disinfectants for reducing infection in a hospital setting.

After analyzing results, the study concluded that cleaning of floors with basic detergents was just as effective as using chemical disinfectants.

Scientists concluded by stating:

"None of these studies showed lower infection rates associated with routine disinfection of surfaces (mainly floors) versus cleaning with detergent only... Disinfectants may pose a danger to staff, patients, and the environment and require special safety precautions. However, targeted disinfection of certain environmental surfaces is in certain instances an established component of hospital infection control. Given the complex, multifactorial nature of nosocomial (hospital) infections, well-designed studies that systematically investigate the role of surface disinfection are required."


Am J Infectious Control
Vol.32(2):84-9, 2004
View Journal HERE

Overweight Children Higher in Disinfectant Homes

Apparently, the use of disinfectants is now being found to contribute toward the rising rates of obesity in children. Results from this large scale study of 728 children found homes using chemical based disinfectants had more than twice the rate of overweight children as homes using eco-friendly disinfectants. Another worrisome finding was that significant changes in gut bacteria were also documented in children living in chemical disinfectant homes.

More to be added soon. Please click the link for additional details.


Canadian Med. Assoc. Jrnl
View Journal HERE